There are a LOT of references to Capernaum in the Gospels because Jesus came here a lot. In fact, this town essentially became His home when the folks at Nazareth rejected Him.
One place we visited was the ruins of the synagogue. After all, we are told that Jesus taught here.
Mark 1:21 “And they went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath he entered the synagogue and was teaching.”
We know that this is the location of the synagogue. There is no debate about it.
But the debate comes when we try to figure out which layer is the synagogue that Jesus taught in.
I took this next video. You can see at the very beginning that the synagogues ruins on top are made of white stone and they rest on black stone. The white stone on top was built around the fourth century. So it may be the ruins of the black stone underneath that is the remnants of the synagogue that Jesus taught in. There may even be another layer below that black stone.
In the previous video, you will have noticed that there is a structure (looks kind of like a UFO). That is a Catholic structure that has been built over what is believed to be the Apostle Peter’s house.
After all, he did live here in Capernaum. Before he was called as a disciple, Jesus went to his house and healed his mother-in-law.
Luke 4:31-32 “And he went down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. And he was teaching them on the Sabbath, and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word possessed authority.”
Luke 4:38–39 “And he arose and left the synagogue and entered Simon’s house. Now Simon’s mother-in-law was ill with a high fever, and they appealed to him on her behalf. And he stood over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her, and immediately she rose and began to serve them.”
Here is a video I took around the ruins suspected to be Peter’s home.